Application - An application is the process or job that the robot is going to perform. These processes can range from arc welding to various material handling applications. Applications can either be extremely simply such as performing a single weld or more complex like sorting out different parts that are moving down a conveyor line.
Degrees of Freedom - This is the directions in which the robot can move, which is typically based on the number of axes it has. Most industrial robots are six axis robots meaning that it can move in a six different ways.
Controller - A robotic controller serves as the brains of the robot system. The servo amplifier, main CPU board, memory, e-stop, as well as other robotic parts are required for a controller to function correctly. Newer controllers feature Ethernet capability as well as other features that allow for simplified programming. The manipulator arm cannot function without the controller. The teach pendant connects to the controller to allow for programming the industrial robot. Used FANUC robots manufactured after 2003 feature either the FANUC R-J3IB, FANUC R-J3IC, FANUC R-30IA, or FANUC R-30IB controllers, with the R30IB controller being the newest. Used Motoman robots manufactured after 1999 feature either the Motoman XRC or XRC 2001, Motoman NX100, Motoman DX100, Yaskawa DX200, or Yaskawa FS100 controllers, with the DX-200 and FS-100 currently still in production. Most manufacturers offer compact cabinets for their smaller robots and full size cabinets for their larger industrial robots.
GMAW - GMAW or gas metal arc welding is a robotic welding process in which an electric arc forms between a consumable wire electrode and the work piece metal(s), which heats the workpiece metal(s), causing them to melt and join. Subtypes of GMAW includes MIG and MAG welding. This is the most common welding process used in robotics today. The Lincoln Powerwave 455m and Miller Auto-Axcess 450 welders are examples of commonly used robotic welder sources. Common industrial robots that are used for this type of arc welding include the Yaskawa Motoman SSA2000 and the FANUC Arc Mate 120ib.
GTAW - GTAW or gas tungsten arc welding is a robotic welding process that uses a non-consumable tungsten electrode to complete a weld. The weld area is protected from the atmosphere by an inert gas. GTAW is generally tougher to master than GMAW. GTAW is typically used to weld stainless steel, aluminum, magnesium and copper allows. GTAW is also known as tungsten inert gas or TIG welding. The Lincoln Powerwave 455m welders is an example of commonly used robotic welder source. Common industrial robots that are used for this type of GTAW welding include the Yaskawa Motoman EA1400N and the FANUC Arc Mate 100ib.
Hollow Wrist - A hollow wrist allows for cabling, wire feeders, and wires to run inside of the robot, decreased potential damange and making the robot more effecient. Late model robots such as the FANUC Arc Mate 120ic and FANUC M-10ia feature a hollow wrist.
Industrial Robot - An industrial robot is a robot system used for various industrial applications including robotic welding, robotic arc welding, material handling, palletizing, deburring, water jetting, pick and place, assembly, machine tending, and painting. Each robotic manipulator arm is programmed using a controller. It is similar to the relationship between a computer monitor and a computer, whereas the computer processes and programs whereas the monitor is the form out output. Various different styles of robots include articulated, delta or "spider" style robots, scara robots, vertical joint-arm, and various specialized types. Major manufacturers of industrial robots include FANUC Robotics, Yaskawa Motoman Robotics, KUKA Robotics, and ABB robotics. Industrial robots are optimal for performing the same in a repetitive nature. Hundreds of thousands of robots have been installed in systems all over the world, creating a large market of used industrial robots
Integration - Integration or integrating is the process of modifying and programming an industrial robot in order to perform a specific robotic application. A prime example of this would be installing a Lincoln Power Wave i400 welding source onto a FANUC Arc Mate 100ic/6L industrial robot allowing the robot for perform arc welding applications. A robot that has not been integrated cannot perform an application. While some integration is rather simple, larger automation integration projects can be quite lengthy and customized.
Integrator - An robotic integrator is a person or company that installs, programs and/or modifies an industrial robot to perform a specific application. Some integrators produce complex multi-million dollar integration projects whereas others specialize in turnkey pre-engineered system. Integrators can utilize either new or used robots in their projects depending on their customer requirements.
Internal Cabling - Internal cabling is a robotic design feature whereas the wire harness and cables are run though the inside of the robot. Internal cabling is optimal for modern industrial robots as it allows for maximum flexibility in movement and motion range.
Motion Range - The motion range is the distance in which a robot can move on each axis, typically expressed in degrees. The motion range is determined by the degrees of freedom.
Motion Speed - The motion speed is the speed in which an industrial robot can move on each axis, typically expressed in degrees or radius per second.
Payload - The payload is the amount of weight that a robot can lift typically expressed in kilograms (KG). Many industrial robot models include a reference to their payload in their model number. For instance, the FANUC M-20ia has a payload of 20 kilograms.
Teach Pendant - A teach pendant is a handheld control used to program and operate a robot. Unless the industrial robot has be integrated with a PLC or other programming method, a teach pendant is required to operate and program the robot. Most controllers require a specific teach pendant in order to operate.
Plasma Cutting - Plasma cutting is the process of cutting electrically conductive material using hot plasma. Plasma cutting is used to cut aluminum, brass, copper, steel, and other conductive metals.
Plasma Welding - Plasma welding or PAW is similar in nature to GTAW in that an electric arc is formed between the workpiece and an electrode, which is typically tungsten. The difference is that the arc can be separated from the shielding gas envelope. PAW can be used to weld bronze, lead, magnesium, and cast iron.
Programmable Logic Controller - a Programmable Logic Controller or PLC is a digital computer that has been integrated to an industrial robot system in order to make programming and operation easier. PLCs allow the robot operator or technician to communicate directly with the industrial robot without the use of a teach pendant. Robotic work cells and welding cells typically use either a push button operator station or a PLC to operate the cell. Most used robots for sale will not include a PLC as it is generally customized to the application it was previously integrated with.
Reach - The reach of a robot is the maxmium distance in which an industrial robot can extend, typically measured in millimeters.
Refurbished Robot - A refurbished robot is an used industrial robot that has undergone some form repair, testing, and maintenance. Typical refurbishment procedures include cleaning, painting, changing out the grease in the axes, replacing batteries in the controller, testing the robot, and making any repairs needed so that the used robot operates within the original factory specifications. Not all companies refurbish used robots in the same. When searching for used robots for sale, a buyer should get an exact list of the procedures that the robot has undergone prior to making a purchase. Robots Done Right's refurbishment procedures can be found in the product information section.
Repeatability - Repeatability is the level of accuracy a robot will obtain as it repeats its programmed cycle. As a rule of thumb, generally smaller robots have a repeatability that is more accurate than that of larger robots. For example, a Motoman UP6 has a repeatability of .08 MM, whereas a FANUC R-2000ia/125L has a repeatability of .2 MM. The smaller the repeatability number, the more accurate the robot is.
Riser - A riser is a steel pedestal that an industrial robot sits on to raise the base of the robot, increasing the vertical reach. Most welding cells use risers so that smaller robots can be used.
Servo Drive - A servo drive is a special electronic amplifier used to power electric machines.
Water Jetting - Water jetting or water jet cutting is the process of using a extremely high pressure jet of water in order to cut material. The water may or may not be mixed with an abrasive substance. It is generally used when dealing with sensitive materials.
Welding Cell - A robotic welding cell is an automated welding system that can complete a robotic weld. A welding cell typically consists of an industrial robot, such as a FANUC Arc Mate 120ic, the respective robot controller, which in this example would be either the FANUC R-30ia or FANUC R-30ib controller, a robotic welding source such as a Lincoln Powerwave i400, a stationary or servo driven welding table, and all necessary cabling. Additional elements of a welding cell might include a push button operator station and safety features including fencing, light curtains, and motion sensors. Some companies produce standardized welding cells using new or used robots, while automation integrators can produce more customized cells for specific applications.
Welding Torch - The welding torch or weld gun is the end of arm tooling attached to a welding robot.
Wire Feeder - A wire feeder is a part of the robotic welding system that supplies the welding torch with the medium or material it needs to complete the weld. The wire feeder is typically mounted on the manipulator arm, but can also be installed within close proximity of the robot.